Yorkshire Terrier

History and Development Although the history of the Yorkshire Terrier is somewhat obscure, the breed is not of any great antiquity. In spite of its undoubted relationship to the old Scottish breeds such as the Clydesdale and the old Black and Tan, the Yorkshire Terrier, as its name implies, was developed in the West Riding of Yorkshire, England. Undoubtedly other breeds were introduced, for instance the Maltese and the Dandic Dinmont have been mentioned, but this cannot be authenticated. The prototype Yorkies varied considerably in size, most being much larger than the present dog and weighing up to 14 or 15 lbs. Of a lighter color and having drop or semi-crect ears which were very often cropped, they were nevertheless identifiable with the modern Yorkie. A show in Leeds in 1861 seems to be the first of which there is record of these dogs being shown. All the exhibits in the class tor “Scotch Terriers”, a term used loosely in those days, were Yorkshire Terriers of a crude pattern. It was not until 1886 that the breed was recognized as Yorkshire Terrier by the Kennel Club in England. These early Yorkies were used mainly for ratting and it took many years and the considerable skill of the breeders to reduce the Read more […]


History and Development The Pomeranian is a breed of dog which can claim great antiquity. Throughout history it has been used for many purposes, but the type has remained unchanged. Depicted in many relics of the Roman era, the essential points of shape of head, carriage of ear and plume, body and coat differ but slightly from today. There seems little doubt that the modern Pomeranian is of central European origin and that a few of the early specimens brought into England came from Pomerania, Germany, and for tins reason were given the name Pomeranian. Although there were several imported into Britain from time to time, the breed made little impression until the year 1870. These early imports were large dogs of up to 30 lbs, in weight but the size was rapidly reduced, until in 1896 Pom classes at shows were divided by weight, 8 lbs, and over and under 8 lbs. In 1915, the Kennel Club withdrew Challenge Certificates for the overweights; that is, dogs over 8 lbs., and today the most popular size is 3½ to 5½ lbs. The whites were the first to be exhibited with success, and it was not until 1890 that blacks were exhibited. The progress of the breed was at first slow. However, in 1891 the first meeting of the Read more […]


History and Development The Pekingese is an oriental breed and consequently much of its history is steeped in the mystery that surrounds the Hast. An ancient breed, the Pekingese appears in many early Chinese paintings, usually at play. One painting dates back to 1720, but long before this the symbolic Fo Dogs and Kylins were popular as works of art and these greatly resemble the Pekingese. The different breeds from the East must all have a common origin with the Pekingese. Paintings as far back as 900 A.D. show a rather short-haired, pug-faced dog, as well as longer-haired breeds, rather like the Shih Tzu. There was also the spaniel type, which was higher on leg and of lighter build and much more dainty. Probably inter-breeding between all types gave the Chinese the compact little Pekingese which became such a firm favorite at the Chinese Court. Succeeding dynasties favored the Pekingese in varying degrees. Out of favor in the Ming Dynasty, they were still bred and cared for by the court but were not granted the high honors of the previous Mongol reign. With the advent of the Manchus in 1644, the dogs again became treasured possessions and were especially favored by the Empress Tsu Hai. Pekingese were little Read more […]

Papillon (and Phalene)

History and Development The Papillon has bred true to type for sonic 700 years or more, as can be verified in the art galleries and museums of the world. It was undoubtedly developed much earlier, and may well have its origin as far back as the 2nd century a.d., or even before then. A terra cotta statue of a somewhat similar dog has been located in Belgium in a Roman tomb of the 2nd century, by Baron Houtart, but there is then a gap until the appearance of dogs typical of the drop-eared variety of today in paintings and frescoes from the late 13th/early 14th centuries. From that time onwards, they have figured in many famous works of art. A close investigation of old paintings reveals that a number of the Toy Spaniels can be clearly identified as Papillons, and yet others bear distinct earmarks of being ancestors of the present Cavalier. By about the 16th century the Papillon had spread from Central Italy, where it bad been first identified, to virtually the whole of Europe, and became a favorite of the Royalty and Courtiers of many lands, including France, Spain, England, Sweden, the Netherlands and Poland. The breed today exists in two distinct forms. The Papillon has erect – or more correctly – oblique ears. Read more […]


History and Development The history of the Maltese, as the oldest European toy dog, can he traced back many centuries to the pre-Christian era. Since they originated in an area which early became civilized, few breeds have had so much written about them at so early a time. Callimachus the Elder (c 384-322 B.C.), Strabo (c 63 B.C.-A.D. 24), Pliny the Elder (23 b.c.-a.d. 79) and Martial (c a.d. 38-a.D. 104) all wrote of the qualities of the Maltese dogs, praising their beauty and intelligence, and they had by this time become “comforters” and pet dogs. It seems probable that they were exported through the ports of Malta and that their widespread dispersal in ancient times can be related to their being exchanged tor goods along the trade routes, and also to their having been made as gifts by visiting diplomatic mission’.. They were quite common in China and the Philippines, between whom there was much trade. Although it is generally believed that the first Maltese came to England during the early part of the 14th century, their popularity at the time of the Holy Roman Empire makes it likely that they were brought over during the Roman occupation of England, many centuries before William the Conqueror. Dogs of Read more […]

Chihuahua (Long-coat, Smooth-coat)

History and Development Chihuahuas arc the smallest members of the canine family. Contrary to popular belief, they are not Mexican in origin. They have existed, relatively unchanged, for hundreds of years, in the lands of the Mediterranean. Ten years before Columbus made his first voyage one was featured by Boticelli, in a fresco in the Sistine Chapel, Rome, the only dog to receive such recognition. Many modern, cream-colored Smooth Chihuahuas look remarkably like the dog in that painting. However, the show type specimen of today was developed in the U.S.A. They flourish on the island of Malta, where they are known as pocket-dogs (Kelb Ta But), and in England, well before 1850, British fanciers made a number of semi-successful attempts to establish them. Early English breeders stated that these “Maltese” terriers, as they called them, were used to refine several other small breeds before they submerged. When tourists, soon after 1850, found and purchased specimens from peons in the north Mexican state of Chihuahua, unsuspecting American breeders gave the dog its name and established it as a firm favorite in the U.S.A. They drew up a breed Standard and today it is one of the top popularity breeds, sixth among 116 Read more […]

Cavalier King Charles Spaniel

History and Development Whatever its origin, the Cavalier King Charles Spaniel is the direct descendant of the small Toy Spaniels depicted in paintings of the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries. Toy Spaniels were quite common as pets among the ladies of the Tudor Court but, in England, it was the Stuarts who showed so much fondness for these little dogs that they were given Royal title of King Charles Spaniels. Rarely was Charles II seen without several of these dogs at his heels and Samuel Pepys, the diarist, complained bitterly that at council meetings the King would play with his dogs rather than attend to council business. John Evelyn, writing in his diary, said: “He took delight in having a number of little Spaniels follow him and lie in his bedchamber where he suffered the bitches to puppy and give suck, which rendered it very offensive”. On the night on which the King died, several of these dogs lay by the fire in the next room, creeping in to their master when the door was left open. One of the earliest paintings showing a Cavalier type Spaniel is Bacchus and Ariadne by Titian, in the National Gallery in London; it was painted about 1523. When William of Orange became William III of England, the Pug dog Read more […]

Bichon Frise

History and Development We know that the Bichon. like his cousin the Caniche, descended from the Barbet or Water Spaniel, from which came the name “Barbichon”, later shortened to “Bichon”. The Bichons were divided into tour types the Bichon Maltaise, the Bichon Bolognese, the Bichon Havanese and the Bichon Teneriffe. All originated in the Mediterranean area. Appreciated for their dispositions, the little dogs traveled much through antiquity. The dogs found early success in Spain and it is generally felt that Spanish seamen introduced the breed to the Canary Island of Teneriffe, hence the name Bichon Teneriffe. In the 14th century, Italian sailors rediscovered our little dogs on their voyages and are credited with returning them to the continent. They soon became great favorites with the Italian nobility arid the new middle class of merchants and, as with other dogs of that era, the Bichons were often cut “lion style”. The ” Teneriffe ” or “Bichon” made his appearance in France under Francis I, the patron of the Renaissance, who reigned from 1515 to 1547. Their great success, however, was during the reign of Henry III from 1547 to 1589. This king so loved the little dogs that he carried them wherever he went Read more […]

The Lymphoid System

The Lymph Nodes In dogs, the primordial structure of the largest lymph nodes is present at 35 to 38 days of gestation, and lymphocytic colonization of the nodes is prominent at 52 to 53 days of gestation (). At birth, puppies and kittens have readily recognizable lymph nodes with a loose reticular structure, low lymphocyte density, and limited organization into cortex and medulla that rapidly proliferates into cortical nodules and medullary cords. Lymph nodes and lymphatic vessels vary in location and number, but their primary function is to participate in immunologic reactions by filtering lymph and recirculating the lymphocytes (). Antigens that gain access to particular body tissues are ultimately found in lymphatic vessels that drain these tissues, making it logical that elements of the immune system are strategically positioned along lymphatic vessels. Although lymph node architecture is relatively uniform throughout the body, nodes near portals of entry of external antigens (mandibular and mesenteric lymph node areas) are often more reactive than nodes in other locations. Lymph Node Disorders As a major site of immunologic recognition, lymph nodes are expected to respond to various local and systemic inflammatory, Read more […]

Thioguanine: 40 mg Tablets

Thioguanine ANTINEOPLASTIC Highlights of Prescribing Information Oral purine analog antineoplastic that may be useful as adjunctive treatment for acute lymphocytic or granulocytic leukemia in dogs or cats Contraindications: Hypersensitivity to thioguanine Caution: Hepatic dysfunction, bone marrow depression, infection, renal function impairment (adjust dosage), or history of urate urinary stones Potentially mutagenic & teratogenic; use milk replacer if nursing Adverse Effects: GI effects, bone marrow suppression, hepatotoxicity, pancreatitis, GI (including oral) ulceration, & dermatologic reactions Cats may be more susceptible than dogs to adverse effects Low therapeutic index; monitoring mandatory What Is Drug Used For? Thioguanine may be useful as adjunctive therapy for acute lymphocytic or granulocytic leukemia in dogs or cats. Pharmacology / Actions Intracellularly, thioguanine is converted to ribonucleotides that cause the synthesis and utilization of purine nucleotides to be blocked. The drug’s cytotoxic effects are believed to occur when these substituted nucleotides are inserted into RNA and DNA. Thioguanine has limited immunosuppressive activity. Extensive cross-resistance Read more […]